2023 / 6
pp. 43 - 89
Household Registration, ID Cards, and the Identification System in Wartime Shanghai

身分辨識是現代政府治理的重要行政基礎,個人身分倘無法被識別、追蹤,不僅政府部門難於治理,私人企業也無從提供服務。本文以上海的身分辨識系統如何精進化為例,檢視近代中國政府如何增強身分辨識能力,使人民臉孔清晰化的過程。具體分析項目圍繞在戶口普查、清查與身分登記所形成的辨識行動,以及所製造的文書檔案、身分憑證,如何具有識別人口的功能,又如何被施予統治意圖,例如進行選舉、防範治安、分配糧食等。研究發現,八年抗戰時期不僅沒有中斷上海身分辨識系統的發展,反而成為重要的積聚階段,銜接戰前上海市政組織已有的身分辨識機制,與戰後國民政府統一的全國身分辨識系統。戰時上海的占領政權是在治安大旗與軍事武力的後盾下,以保甲編組和糧食配給為強制力,提升市民證辨識人民身分的效力。然而,戰時此一帶有壓迫性的身分辨識系統,也對戰後國民政府在上海的統治,留下制度遺產與歷史記憶的雙面刃影響。一方面,國民黨認知統一全國身分辨識系統的重要性,因此推行國民身份證;此舉卻也喚起上海市民在日本占領時期遭到壓迫的記憶,導致國民身份證推行不暢。 綜觀20世紀上半葉身分辨識系統在中國精進化的歷史,受戰爭強制力推進的程度,遠勝過訴求自治選舉、社會救濟等增進人民福祉的力量。這對1950年代海峽兩岸政府的戶口政治,都產生影響。


Recognizing people’s identity comprises an indispensable part of modern state governance. If a person’s identity cannot be recognized or traced, not only will government agencies find it difficult to govern, but private enterprises will also be unable to provide services. This article explores the history of the elaboration of identification system in wartime Shanghai to examine how the modern Chinese government boosted its capability of identifying people, making them legible and approachable, for example for tracing and scrutiny. This article analyzes the actions, documents, and identity certificate produced by census, investigation, and registration procedures, which made it possible to establish and recognize people’s identity, which supports various items of governance, such as voting, maintaining order, and rationing food. This article argues that the Sino-Japanese War became a pivotal period when a variety of apparatuses for collecting people’s information for establishing and recognizing their identity were implemented; it was not a period the identification system was disrupted. The identification system was elaborated, with the coercion of Baojia organizations and food rationing enforced by the occupation state on the basis of military power; however, at the same time it bequeathed an institutional legacy and historical nightmare. After the war, the KMT government, which returned to Shanghai, extended its wartime identification practice into the effort to integrate the ID card system nationwide. Nevertheless, this effort made the citizens of Shanghai skeptical that the goal of this effort was really social control by the KMT and not just the legalization of citizenship matters.




Household registration;Identification;Liangminzheng;Shiminzheng;National identification card;Baojia;Ration